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Neutral axis

In bending, the neutral axis describes the location in the material that is neither stretched nor compressed, and therefore remains at a constant length.

Neutral axis - Neutral axis
Neutral axis
Neutral axis - Bending diagram
Bending diagram


Chemical symbol Ni. Element No. 28 of the periodic system; atomic weight 58.69. Melting point 1455ºC (2651ºF.); boiling point about 2900ºC (5250ºF.), specific gravity 8.90. Hard, silvery-white metal known primarily as an alloy to improve strength and corrosion resistance of other metals, notably steel. Nickel is a slightly magnetic metal, of medium hardness and high degree of ductility and malleability, with high resistance to chemical and atmospheric corrosion. Pure nickel is used in galvanic plating, where objects must be coated with nickel before they can be plated with chrome. When used as an alloying agent, it is of great importance in iron-based alloys in stainless steels and in copper-based alloys such as cupro-nickel as well as in nickel-based alloys such as Monel. About 65% of all nickel is used in the making of stainless steel. Its principal functions as an alloy in steel making: (1) Strengthens unquenched or annealed steels. (2) Toughens pearlitic-ferritic steels (especially at low temperature). (3) Renders high-chromium iron alloys austenitic. In amounts 0.50% to 5.00% its use in alloy steels increases the toughness and tensile strength without detrimental effect on the ductility. Nickel also increases the hardenability, thus permitting the steel to be oil- hardened instead of water quenched. In larger quantities, 8.00% and upwards, nickel is the constituent, together with chromium, of many corrosion resistant and stainless austenitic steels.

Non-ferrous Metals

Metals or alloys that are free of iron or comparatively so.

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