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The permanent bending of a part that occurs when certain section of the part shrink faster than others, as result of a non-uniform cooling rate.

Web width

The space between adjacent blanks or parts that are to be cut from a piece of sheet stock. When all parts are cut, this web of material remains attached to the sheet border and is scrap material. The web width is used in determining how many parts a single piece of sheet stock will yield.

Web width - Sheet stock (Rectangular blanks)
Sheet stock (Rectangular blanks)
Web width - Sheet stock (Round blanks)
Sheet stock (Round blanks)


Smooth, cylindrical parts that rotate. (Includes: bearings, cams, casters, disks, pulleys, rings, rollers, tires, etc)

Wipe bending

Wipe bending, also called edge bending, is a sheet metal bending method in which a sheet is held between a wipe die and pressure pad, and a punch presses against the edge of the sheet. The sheet will bend against the radius of the edge of the wipe die.

Wipe bending - Wipe bending
Wipe bending


A piece of material that is secured in a fixture and machined into the final part. The workpiece is often cut from a larger piece of stock material and can be a sheet (blank), a standard extruded shape (solid bar, hollow tube, or shaped beam), a custom extrusion, or any prefabricated part such as a casting or forging. Each workpiece shape has certain dimensions that are used in planning the machining operations.

Workpiece - Flat sheet
Flat sheet
Workpiece - Round bar
Round bar
Workpiece - Rectangular bar
Rectangular bar
Workpiece - Hexagonal bar
Hexagonal bar
Workpiece - Round tube
Round tube
Workpiece - Rectangular tube
Rectangular tube
Workpiece - I-beam
Workpiece - L-beam
Workpiece - T-beam
Workpiece - U-beam
Workpiece - Z-beam
Workpiece - Custom extrusions
Custom extrusions

Workpiece clearance

The safe distance away from the workpiece at which the cutting tool can switch from the cutting feed rate to a rapid travel rate. This distance traveled before engaging the workpiece, as well as exiting from the workpiece, is included in the cut length.

Workpiece clearance - Side approach
Side approach
Workpiece clearance - Top approach
Top approach

Workpiece load time

The time required to load the workpiece into the machine and secure it to the fixture. The load time can depend on the size, weight, and complexity of the workpiece, as well as the type of fixture.

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